International Conventions And Agreements On Environmental Issues

1.48 What we looked at. The We examined whether Environment Canada is aware of the extent to which Canada is achieving the estimated reduction in NOx and VOC emissions based on ozone exposure. In addition, we examined the related information that Environment Canada has on the environmental impact or the results of emission reductions. The full titles of the five international environmental agreements are included in the case study phases, in the form of follow-ups and recommendations. 1.120 The three departments responsible for implementing the five agreements we are reviewing – Environment Canada, Transport Canada, and Fisheries and Oceans Canada – have unanimously stated that their primary responsibility is clearly defined and delegated. These include responsibilities for setting performance expectations, monitoring and reporting, as well as verifying performance and taking the necessary measures to ensure that the environmental results and results of the agreements are achieved. Mercurio B. International investment agreements and public health: neutralising a threat of contracting. Bubble of the World Health Organ. 2014; 92:520-5.

1.10 In addition to their growing number, international environmental agreements have also increased in scope and complexity. While previous agreements focused on a limited number of topics, the most recent agreements deal with a much wider range of topics. In addition, the terms of the most recent agreements are generally broader and stricter and cover a wider range of obligations. ∗ numbers in square parentheses in the text refer to the conventions listed in Table C1. 1.126 Although there were no specific requirements to report to Parliament or Canadians on the achievement of the environmental outcomes of the five agreements, the lead departments used, in some cases, their departmental performance reports to report on international environmental agreements. However, in most cases, the reports focused on departmental activities or initiatives and not on environmental results or results achieved. We noted one exception: for the Ozone Annex, Environment Canada provided in its performance reports information on the ground-level ozone content in major cities and on the concentrations of related air pollutants. The Union has already ratified many international environmental agreements, both at global level (multilateral agreements negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations) and at regional level (e.g. B in the framework of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe or the Council of Europe) and at subregional level (e.g. B for the management of transboundary seas or rivers). In 96 treaties, we have found provisions which state that the protection or promotion of human health is one of the objectives of the Treaty.

The first time an environmental treaty has set as an objective human welfare or human health, the 1972 Convention on the Prevention of Pollution Caused by unloading from Ships and Aircraft, an agreement concluded between several European countries: “The Contracting Parties undertake to take all possible measures to prevent pollution of the sea by substances, likely to cause risks to human health. […].” In 2001, the United Nations Environment Programme reported that there were “more than 500 international treaties and other agreements relating to the environment … . .

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